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pandora essence Of those, only six (22%) did not have substantial heterogeneity (I2>75%) pandora jewellery, pertaining to associations between type 2 diabetes and risk of developing breast https://www.pandora-jewelry-uk.com/, cholangiocarcinoma (both intrahepatic and extrahepatic), colorectal, endometrial, and gallbladder cancer. The 95% prediction intervals excluded the null value for four of these associations (breast, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal, and endometrial cancer).Conclusions Though type 2 diabetes has been extensively studied in relation to risk of developing cancer and cancer mortality and strong claims of significance exist for most of the studied associations, only a minority of these associations have robust supporting evidence without hints of bias.IntroductionAlmost 400 million people throughout the world have diabetes, 85 95% of whom have type 2 disease.1 Cancer is the second leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the third leading cause of death in developing countries.2 Multiple studies and meta analyses have claimed that type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cancer at several sites including liver, pancreas, endometrium, colorectum, breast, and bladder, and a decreased risk of prostate cancer.3 The observed associations between type 2 diabetes and cancer could be either causal (for example, caused by hyperglycaemia or hyperinsulinaemia) or because of confounding from common risk factors such as adiposity. If causal, these associations might be of great importance for public health given the substantial global burden of these diseases.2 It is also possible, however, that some claimed associations could be caused by biases in the literature, in particular selective reporting biases favouring the publication of significant associations4 and causing either false positives5 or inflated estimates of association.6 Biases have been suspected, documented, or debated in observational epidemiology of cancer for multiple putative carcinogens, risk factors, biomarkers, and prognostic factors.7 8 9 10 11 12 13To understand the strength of evidence and extent of potential biases in the claimed associations between type 2 diabetes and risk of developing cancer, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence across published meta analyses or systematic reviews pandora essence.